3.5.1 Ensuring a Clean Water Chain

Course subject(s) Module 3 – Water & Waste Water: Water as Basic Need

Avoiding Medicine Residues in Waste Water: The Road Bag

So, now that you have seen the different criteria that “improved sanitation” should meet, according to you and your fellow learners, do you think the PeePoo bag can be considered “improved sanitation”? Do you think a plastic bag can be a proper alternative to a toilet?

Have you considered to what extent your answer to the previous question depends on the specific context at hand? Let’s shift to the Dutch context, as Dr. Bas van Vliet and Astrid Hendriksen introduce you to the use of so-called ‘Road Bags’ in hospitals to avoid medicine residues entering the waste water. Just like PeePoo bags, road bags are plastic bags used as alternative toilets, however, in a very different context and for a rather different purpose. What do you think of the use of plastic bags as an alternative toilet now?

Avoiding Medicine Residues in Waste Water: Toilet Behaviour and the Urine Bag

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Vliet, B. J. M., Spaargaren, G., & Oosterveer, P. (2011). Sanitation under challenge: Contributions from the social sciences. Water Policy, 13(6), 797–809. Retrieved from Scopus.

Hendriksen, A., Tukahirwa, J., Oosterveer, P. J. M., & Mol, A. P. J. (2012). Participatory Decision Making for Sanitation Improvements in Unplanned Urban Settlements in East Africa. The Journal of Environment & Development, 21(1), 98–119.

Diels, J., Muis, J., Verhoef, A., Vliet, B. van, Hendriksen, A., & Wijn, G. (2015). Getting a Grip on Drug Residues in our Waters. Zwolle: Waterschap Groot Salland Retrieved from WDODelta.

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