Course information

Responsible Instructor
Name E-mail A.M.J. Coenders
Contact Hours / Week x/x/x/x
Education Period
Start Education
Exam Period
Course Language
Course Contents
Relation of purpose of data to data requirements. Relation of data to costs.

Accuracy requirements of measurements and error propagation:
Related to a problem the required accuracy of measurements and the consequences for accuracy in the final result are discussed. Different types of errors are handled. Propagation of errors; for dependent and independent measurements, from mathematical relations and regression is demonstrated. Recapitulated is the theory of regression and correlation.

Interpretation of measurements, data completion:
By standard statistical methods screening of measured data is performed; double mass analysis, residual mass, simple rainfall-runoff modelling. Detection of trends; split record tests, Spearman rank tests. Methods to fill data gaps and do filtering on data series for noise reduction.

Hydrological processes:
The most important processes of the hydrological cycle are explained.

Methods of hydrological measurements and measuring equipment:
To determine quantitatively the most important elements in the hydrological cycle an overview is presented of most common hydrological measurements, measuring equipment and indirect determination methods i.e. for precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, river discharge and groundwater tables. Use, purpose and measurement techniques for tracers in hydrology is discussed.
Advantages and disadvantages and specific condition/application of methods are discussed. Equipment is demonstrated and discussed.

Areal distributed observation:
Areal interpolation techniques of point observations: inverse distance, Thiessen, contouring, Kriging. Comparison of interpolation techniques and estimation of errors. Correlation analysis of areal distributed observation of rainfall.

Design of measuring networks:
Based on correlation characteristics from point measurements (e.g. rainfall stations) and accuracy requirements the design of a network of stations is demonstrated.

Computer Exercise:
Theories on processing and screening of data are applied with data from actual river catchments. Exercises on stage-discharge relations and discharge measurements, hydrograph seperation and age dating from tracer observations. Evaporation from energy balance. Areal interpolation.
Study Goals
After having studied the lecture material and attended the lectures the following is expected:
1. Having an overview of the main hydrological processes of the hydrological cycle.
2. Having an overview of measuring methods in hydrology and recognizing specific conditions and requirements;
3. Being able to assess the necessity of measurements for design, management and research. Capable of executing measurements and defining a measurement campaign;
4. Recognition of possible errors and propagation of errors in the final result;
5. Recognition of the measurable parameters in the hydrological processes and rainfall runoff relation, with the aim to participate in research or definition of research in this field;
6. The computer exercises aim at applying the theories of data screening at the scale of an actual catchment and applying theories and calculation of most relevant techniques of hydrological measurements.
Education Method
- 50% lectures, with invited speakers, and demonstrations
- 50% exercise
Course Relations
CIE4440 uses CTB2420, CIE4440 is applied in CIE5471
Literature and Study Materials
Lecture notes "Hydrological processes and measurements" through Microweb, Lecture notes as pdf, Article bundle as pdf, lectures as ppt, and exercises on blackboard.

Written exam
Permitted Materials during Tests
Formula paper (1 A4 handwritten)
Expected prior Knowledge
CTB2420 (Hydrology)
Academic Skills
Paper reading
Literature & Study Materials
- Lecture notes
- Paper bundle
- Lecture presentations
written exam
Permitted Materials during Exam
Formula paper (1 A4 handwritten, double sided)
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