Electrical machines and drives – Readings

Course subject(s) 01. Introduction to Electrical machines and drives 02. Maxwell’s equations and Magnetic circuits 03. Principles of electromechanics 04. DC Machines and Drives 05. DC Machines continued 06. DC Machine drivers and Induction machines 07. Induction machines 1 08. Induction machines 2 09. Synchronous Machines 10. Permanent magnet AC machines 11. Stepper, Single phase and Universal motors, and Switched reluctance machines


The course Electrical machines and drives uses the following books as study material;

  • Principles of electric machines and power electronics,P.C. Sen,New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1997 (second edition).
  • Electric Machinery, A.E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley, S.D. Umans, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003 (sixth edition).

Principles of electric machines and power electronics

  • Reference: Paresh C. Sen (1996), Principles of Electric Machines and Power Electronics.John Wiley & Sons, Inc.ISBN 0471022950.

This new edition combines the traditional areas of electric machinery with the latest in modern control and power electronics. It includes coverage of multi-machine systems, brushless motors and switched reluctance motors, as well as constant flux and constant current operation of induction motors. It also features additional material on new solid state devices such as Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors and MOS-Controlled Thrysistors.In P. C. Sen’s second edition of Principles of Electronic Machines and Power Electronics, the author responds to recent changes in technology in order to update and enhance this popular text. This text is written to allow an instructor to select topics for coverage in either a one or two semester course in electric machines. Sections and entire chapters can be skipped without losing continuity. The new edition combines traditional areas of electric machinery covered in the first edition with the latest in modern control and power electronics.


1. Magnetic Circuits

  • Magnetic Circuits
  • Hysteresis
  • Sinusoidal excitation
  • Permanent Magnet

2. Transformers

  • Ideal transformer
  • Practical transformer
  • Voltage regulation
  • efficiency
  • Autotransformer
  • Three-Phase transformers
  • Harmonic in Three-Phase transformer banks
  • Per-Unit(PU) system

3. Electromechanical Energy conversion

  •  Energy Conversion process
  • Field Energy
  • Mechanical force in the Electromagnetic system
  • Rotating Machines
  • Cylindrical Machines

4. DC Machines

  • Electromagnetic Conversion
  • DC Machines
  • DC Generators
  • DC Motors
  • Speed Control
  • Permanent Magnet DC (PMDC) Motors
  • Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Motors

5. Induction (Asynchronous) Machines

  •  Constructional Features
  • Rotating Magnetic Field
  • Induced Voltages
  • Polyphase Induction Machines
  • Three Modes Of Operation
  • Inverted Induction Machines
  • Equivalent Circuit Model
  • No-Load Test
  • Performance Characteristics
  • Power flow in three modes of operation
  • Effects of Rotor Resistance
  • Classes of Squirrel-cage Motors
  • Speed Control
  • Starting of Induction Motors
  • Time and Space Harmonics
  • Linear Induction Motor (LIM)

6. Synchronous Machines

  • Construction of Three-Phase synchronous Machines
  • Synchronous Generators
  • Synchronous Motors
  • Equivalent Circuit Model
  • Power and Torque characteristics
  • Capability Curves
  • Power factor Control
  • Independent Generators
  • Salient Pole Synchronous Machines
  • Sped Control of Synchronous Motors
  • Appilications
  • Linear Synchronous Motor(LIM)
  • Brushless DC(BLDC) Motors
  • Switched Reluctance Motors (SRM)

7. Single-Phase Motors

  • Single-Phase Induction Motors
  • Starting Winding Design
  • Equivalent Circuit of a Capacitor-run Motor
  • Single-Phase series (universal) Motors
  • Single-Phase Synchronous Motors
  • Speed Control

8. Special Machines

  • Servomotors
  • Synchros
  • Stepper Motors

9. Transients and Dynamics

  • DC Machines
  • Synchronous Machines
  • Induction Machines
  • Transformer; Transient Inrush Current

10. Power Semiconductor Converters

  • Power Semiconductor Devices
  • Controllerd Rectifiers
  • AC Voltage Controllers
  • Choppers
  • Inverters
  • Cycloconverters

Appendix A: Windings

  • MMF Distribution
  • Induced Voltages
  • Winding Arrangement
  • Space Harmonics and Winding Factors
  • Time Harmonic Voltages

Appendix B: Balanced Three-Phase Circuits

  • Single-Phase Circuits
  • Balanced Three-Phase Circuits
  • Balanced Three-Phase Load
  • Y Transformation of Load
  • Per-Phase Equivalent Circuit
  • Three-Phase Power Measurement

Appendix C: Units and Constants

  • Units
  • Constants

Appendix D: Laplace Transforms

Appendix E: Answers To Odd-Numbered Problems

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Electric Machinery

Reference: A.E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley and S.D. Umans (2003), Electric Machinery. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math. ISBN 0073660094.

The chief objective of Electric Machinery continues to be to build a strong foundation in the basic principles of electromechanics and electric machinery. Through all of its editions, the emphasis of Electric Machinery has been on both physical insight and analytical techniques. Mastery of the material covered will provide both the basis for understanding many real-world electric-machinery applications as well as the foundation for proceeding on to more advanced courses in electric machinery design and control. Power electronics are a significant component of many contemporary electric-machine applications. This topic is included in Chapter 10 of this edition ofElectricMachineryin recognition of the fact that many electric-machinery courses now includea discussion of power electronics and drive systems. However, it must be emphasizedthat the single chapter found here is introductory at best. One chapter cannot begin todo justice to this complex topic any more than a single chapter in a power-electronicstext could adequately introduce the topic of electric machinery.The approach taken here is to discuss the basic properties of common power elec-tronic components such as diodes, SCRs, MOSFETs, and IGBTs and to introducesimple models for these components. The chapter then illustrates how these compo-nents can be used to achieve two primary functions of power-electronic circuits indrive applications: rectification (conversion of ac to dc) and inversion (conversion ofdc to ac). Phase-controlled rectification is discussed as a technique for controlling thedc voltage produced from afixed ac source. Phase-controlled rectification can be used to drive dc machines as well as to provide a controllable dc input to inverters in acdrives. Similarly, techniques for producing stepped and pulse-width-modulated wave-forms of variable amplitudes and frequency are discussed. These techniques are at theheart of variable-speed drive systems which are commonly found in variable-speedac drives.


1. Magnetic Circuits and Magnetic Materials

  • Introduction to Magnetic Circuits
  • Flux Linkage, Inductance, and Energy
  • Properties of Magnetic Materials
  • AC Excitation
  • Permanent Magnets
  • Application of Permanent MagnetMaterials

2. Transformers

  • Introduction to Transformers
  • No-Load Conditions
  • Effect of Secondary Current; IdealTransformer
  • Transformer Reactances and EquivalentCircuits
  • Engineering Aspects of TransformerAnalysis
  • Autotransformers; MultiwindingTransformers
  • Transformers in Three-Phase Circuits
  • Voltage and Current Transformers
  • The Per-Unit System

3. Energy-Conversion Principles

  • Forces and Torques in MagneticField Systems
  • Energy Balance
  • Energy in Singly-Excited Magnetic FieldSystems
  • Determination of Magnetic Force and Torquefrom Energy
  • Determination of Magnetic Force and Torquefrom Coenergy
  • Multiply-Excited Magnetic FieldSystems
  • Forces and Torques in Systems withPermanent Magnets
  • Dynamic Equations
  • Analytical Techniques

4. Introduction to Rotating Machines

  • Elementary Concepts
  • Introduction to AC and DC Machines
  • MMF of Distributed Windings
  • Magnetic Fields in Rotating Machinery
  • Rotating MMF Waves in AC Machines
  • Generated Voltage
  • Torque in Nonsalient-Pole Machines
  • Linear Machines
  • Magnetic Saturation
  • Leakage Fluxes

5. Synchronous Machines

  • Introduction to Polyphase SynchronousMachines
  • Synchronous-Machine Inductances;Equivalent Circuits
  • Open- and Short-Circuit Characteristics
  • Steady-State Power-AngleCharacteristic
  • Steady-State Operating Characteristics
  • Effects of Salient Poles; Introduction toDirect- and Quadrature-Axis Theory
  • Power-Angle Characteristics of Salient-PoleMachines
  • Permanent-Magnet AC Motors

6. Polyphase Induction Machines

  • Introduction to Polyphase InductionMachines
  • Currents and Fluxes in Polyphase InductionMachines
  • Induction-Motor Equivalent Circuit
  • Analysis of the Equivalent Circuit
  • Torque and Power by Use of Thevenin’sTheorem
  • Parameter Determination from No-Load andBlocked-Rotor Tests
  • Effects of Rotor Resistance; Wound andDouble-Squirrel-Cage Rotors

7. DC Machines

  • Introduction
  • Commutator Action
  • Effect of Armature MMF
  • Analytical Fundamentals: Electric-CircuitAspects
  • Analytical Fundamentals: Magnetic-CircuitAspects
  • Analysis of Steady-State Performance
  • Permanent-Magnet DC Machines
  • Commutation and Interpoles
  • Compensating Windings
  • Series Universal Motors

8. Variable-Reluctance Machines andStepping Motors

  • Basics of VRM Analysiss
  • Practical VRM Configurations
  • Current Waveforms for Torque Production
  • Nonlinear Analysis
  • Stepping Motors

9. Single- and Two-Phase Motors

  • Single-Phase Induction Motors: QualitativeExamination
  • Starting and Running Performance of Single- Phase Induction and Synchronous Motors
  • Revolving-Field Theory of Single-PhaseInduction Motors
  • Two-Phase Induction Motors

10. Introduction to Power Electronics

  • Power Switches
  • Rectification: Conversion of AC to DC
  • Inversion: Conversion of DC to AC

11. Speed and Torque Control

  • Control of DC Motors
  • Control of Synchronous Motors
  • Control of Induction Motors
  • Control of Variable-Reluctance Motors

Appendix A Three-Phase Circuits

  • Generation of Three-Phase Voltages
  • Three-Phase Voltages, Currents, andPower
  • Y- and-Connected Circuits
  • Analysis of Balanced Three-Phase Circuits;Single-Line Diagrams
  • Other Polyphase Systems

Appendix B Voltages, Magnetic Fields, and Inductances of Distributed AC Windings

  • Generated Voltages
  • Armature MMF Waves
  • Air-Gap Inductances of DistributedWindings

Appendix C The dq0 Transformation

  • Transformation to Direct- and Quadrature-AxisVariables
  • Basic Synchronous-Machine Relations in dq0Variables
  • Basic Induction-Machine Relations in dq0Variables

Appendix D Engineering Aspects of Practical Electric Machine Performance and Operation

  • Losses
  • Rating and Heating
  • Cooling Means for Electric Machines
  • Excitation
  • Energy Efficiency of Electric Machinery

Appendix E Table of Constants and Conversion Factors for SI Units

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