4.4.1. From dualities to values

Course subject(s) 4. In troubled waters: What challenges are water systems facing?

In the case of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces, we suggest that the dualities of this agricultural water system exist in “traditional water distribution and tourism”, “modern irrigation system and preservation” and “water sources and economic development”. And in the case of Findikli, we refer to the dualities of “changing water patterns and preservation” and “spiritual values and consumption.”

Dualities present a contrast or confrontation of values and interests. They are not, however, mutually exclusive, as “dichotomies” would be. Bandarin, for example, sayss that “happiness” and “tourism” can go hand in hand, as long as stakeholders take responsibility for other interests and values than just their own, or actually find shared values and work to incorporate them in one solution.

Water cities are happier

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